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科普:牙龈萎缩的原因及预防治疗

时间:2019-07-22

有许多朋友在矫正过程中牙龈萎缩。所谓的牙龈萎缩是牙龈慢慢缩回,露出的牙齿越来越多,然后许多黑色三角形一个接一个地出现。许多人认为牙箍使牙龈缩小,并且有一个黑色三角形。事实上,牙龈萎缩还有很多其他因素。以下是我直接复制和粘贴的百度百科全书的一些内容。

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疾病介绍

牙釉质牙冠的正常边缘位于2至3 mm处。牙龈萎缩是指龈骨边缘的牙龈边缘减少,其暴露根部并引起一系列病症。在严重的牙龈萎缩的情况下,发生相应的牙槽骨吸收。这种现象很常见,特别是在老年人中。它被称为牙周萎缩数十年,被认为是与生理年龄相关的变化(老年性牙周萎缩)或病理现象(如年轻人中发生的早发性牙周萎缩)。事实上,这种牙龈根部收缩不属于萎缩,并不一定是年龄的变化。许多老年人没有牙周萎缩。成人健康的牙周组织也具有缓慢且轻微的附着损失,每10年约0.17mm。到70岁时,牙周组织缩回仅0.5mm,临床上难以检测和无症状。萎缩是指组织,器官或细胞成分在达到正常成熟后丧失,并且它们失去了正常的功能。近年来,牙龈萎缩已经被用来代替牙龈萎缩。

疾病原因

牙龈萎缩分为生理性萎缩和病理性萎缩。随着年龄的增长,它会或多或少地收缩,导致根部暴露。这被称为生理性萎缩。治疗不需要它,但可以通过医疗保健延迟治疗。

在矫正过程中发生的牙龈萎缩应该是以下原因。让我们仔细看看并开出正确的药物。

Pathological atrophy is mainly caused by the following reasons:

Inflammatory gingival atrophy

The presence of foreign bodies (tartar) in the rim margin has not been cleaned for a long time, and the bacteria are stimulated by stimulation. This type of atrophy is most common, mainly because periodontitis causes damage to the periodontal tissues. After the alveolar bone is absorbed, the gums attached to the alveolar bone shrink with the direction of the root, and only occur in the periodontal period. Inflammatory patients. [I feel this is the main reason for correcting the gingival recession]

Mechanical gingival atrophy

Mainly because the toothbrush does not meet the standard, the method is not correct (such as the horizontal brush method), the mechanical repair of the bad restoration or the compression of the gums, causing the gums and alveolar bone to retract. Occurs in a group of teeth or individual teeth.

Disuse of gingival atrophy

Mainly because the teeth do not have a chewing function, the periodontal tissue lacks the necessary functional stimulation, and is in a state of disuse for a long time, which can absorb the gums and alveolar bone. This kind of gum shrinkage is like a person who stays in bed for a long time. Without walking, the muscles will shrink. This is the same reason. [This should be said that there is a long-term lack of teeth and no fillings]

Premature gingival atrophy

Similar to the physiological gingival atrophy of the elderly, the gums and alveolar bone of most or full-mouth teeth shrink, but mostly occur in younger young people. That is to say, young people have the performance of gingival recession in the elderly, so it is called premature gingival atrophy. According to a recent survey, young people have premature gingival atrophy, which is thought to be caused by atrophy of the gums (hormone, additives, etc. in food) and drugs leading to atrophy of the gums due to dietary or environmental pollution. [Our current gum shrinkage does not rule out this reason]

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Clinical manifestations

xx牙龈退缩后,临床牙冠变长,牙根表面暴露,牙齿过敏发生在受到冷,热和甜味的刺激时,甚至可能引起牙髓炎。同时,齿间空间增大,食物堵塞,牙本质过敏。前牙中出现的牙龈缩回,影响外观。

老年人牙周萎缩是牙槽骨总高度的均匀减少,伴有牙龈退缩,牙骨质暴露,临床牙冠延长,无明显局部因素和炎症。牙槽骨的损失和软组织的收缩程度是一致的。牙龈,牙周纤维和牙槽骨仍然保持着它们的关系,牙齿仍然相对稳定。在年龄不成比例的年轻人的口腔中可以发现早产牙周萎缩。整个口腔的牙周回缩没有明显的刺激因素。原因尚不清楚,可能与系统因素有关。

废除牙周萎缩,X线检查显示牙周空间狭窄,牙槽骨松动,骨髓腔扩大,硬骨板不清晰等缺乏功能性萎缩刺激。

机械性萎缩在患有侧向刷牙习惯的患者中更常见,发生在犬和二尖颈楔形缺损中。其他如假体压迫,食物嵌塞等可导致牙龈炎和牙周袋形成。

在患有萎缩性萎缩的患者中,可以发现没有咬合功能的牙齿,例如咬合不正,并且缺失的牙齿不能及时修复,并且在侧面咀嚼。

牙龈萎缩引起的牙周炎在牙周治疗或口腔卫生改善后更常见。牙周袋的软组织缩回并暴露根部。

牙周病大多数成年人患有牙周病。大多数牙周病进展缓慢。其中大多数是开始时的牙龈炎。除偶尔刷牙外没有太多症状,因此不明显。牙龈炎的发展在一定程度上是牙周炎。此时,可出现严重的口腔异味,牙周期间脓肿反复,牙齿松动,牙齿越来越大,牙齿越来越稀疏。如果在这个阶段看病人,医生可以控制炎症的恶化,但受损的牙周组织(包括牙龈萎缩)是不可逆的,很难完全恢复。就陈女士而言,这是一种不可逆转的牙周破坏。

不正确的刷牙方法不仅可以保护和损伤牙齿和牙周组织,例如过多的牙刷,牙膏和刷牙中过多的磨料颗粒,这些都可能导致牙龈缩回。

假肢不良表现不佳的假牙不易清洁,这会导致牙周卫生不良和牙龈萎缩。

由于各种原因引起的咬合力也过大,这也会导致牙齿异常移动并使牙龈缩回。牙龈退缩是不可逆转的,重点应放在预防上:

1定期口腔护理。发达国家的经验证明,每6至12个月清洁一次牙齿是预防牙龈炎症的有效措施。有牙周病症状的患者应及时接受全身牙周治疗。

2掌握正确的刷牙方法。建议使用具有较软刷毛和钝头的牙刷。牙膏优选是氟化物牙膏,其中包含的磨料的厚度应该合适。同时,要学会正确的刷牙姿势,大多数人可以采用垂直刷法或短横振法。必要时使用牙签和牙线清洁牙刷难以触及的位置。

3不要便宜又方便。在一些技术水平低,手术不规律的小诊所,这也是造成不良修复的主要原因。

4如果患者感到个别牙齿出现异常运动,应及时到医院检查,进行对症治疗。

主要是由于边缘处存在异物,长时间没有清洁,细菌的生长延长。此外,随着年龄的增长,它会或多或少地收缩,导致根部暴露。这被称为生理性萎缩。需要治疗。然后是不正确的牙科手术留下的后遗症。保持清洁是延缓牙龈萎缩的最有效方法。定期洗牙也很重要。炎性牙龈萎缩,主要表现为红色牙龈肿胀和疼痛,刷牙时常出血。较老的牙龈萎缩常使暴露的牙齿对寒冷和炎热的温度变化和酸性食物极为敏感,阻碍进食和降低生活质量,特别注意预防和治疗。

1.养成良好的口腔卫生习惯。应使用符合国家牙科预防组织建议的牙膏和牙刷。每天刷牙2-3次,睡前一次是必不可少的。如果刷牙太晚或不方便,可以用漱口水代替。在某些特殊场合,您可以用汤或茶冲洗口腔。

2,预防和治疗炎症性口腔疾病。牙周炎,结石,口腔溃疡,牙龈炎,牙龈脓肿,食物嵌塞和不太合适的假牙都是牙龈萎缩的原因,所以你应该定期去医院接受治疗和口腔自理。咨询知识;对于已经缩小的牙龈,也可以进行手术。

3.治疗导致牙龈退缩的老年全身性疾病。如内分泌失调可导致牙龈萎缩;贫血和缺乏维生素C,容易出现牙龈出血;糖尿病患者容易发生口腔炎症;白血病等严重疾病也会导致牙龈萎缩。在治愈原发疾病后,牙龈缩小并改善。

4.严格防止环境污染。砷和铅等中毒可导致牙周炎,牙龈水肿和牙龈萎缩。因此,要注意工作和生活环境的质量,避免接触有毒物质。

5,饮食。煮熟的瘦肉或生地,15克熟地,生姜,煮鸡蛋,有助于预测和治疗牙周病,可以长时间食用。

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The correct methods of brushing currently advocated are as follows:

Vertical brushing method: put the tip of the toothbrush to the junction of the gums and the crown, press it slightly in the direction of the teeth, brush down when brushing the teeth, brush upwards when brushing the teeth, the inner and outer surfaces of the teeth and the occlusal surface Have to brush it. Repeat the brush several times in the same part. This method can effectively eliminate plaque and soft dirt, and can stimulate the gums and keep the shape of the gums normal.

The tremor method refers to the angle between the bristles and the teeth at a 45 degree angle when brushing the teeth, so that a part of the bristles enters the gap between the gums and the tooth surface, and the other part extends into the teeth and makes a short distance of vibration. When brushing the occlusal surface, the bristles should be placed flat on the tooth surface for short-term vibration. You can brush 2-3 teeth in each part. Brush both the inner and outer sides of the teeth. Although this method is also a horizontal brush, since it is a short-distance horizontal brush, it is basically horizontally vibrated in the original position, and the tooth neck is not damaged as compared with the large-scale lateral brushing, and it is not easy to damage the gums.

Physiological brushing method: refers to the contact of the top of the toothbrush with the tooth surface, and then gently brush the direction of the gum. This method acts like a food that is slightly irritating through the gums, promotes blood circulation in the gums, and helps keep the periodontal tissues healthy.

"Ganjing one plus five" oral cleaning method: use oral cleaning finger sets, dental floss, toothbrush as a tool to achieve comprehensive cleaning of the tongue, teeth, lips, sputum and other oral parts, prevention of oral ulcers, bad breath, periodontitis and other oral cavity Disease, harvest healthy mouth.

In short, brush your teeth to be gentle, don't use too much force, but repeat it many times. Brush every face of the tooth, especially the back of the molar, be sure to put the toothbrush into the brush. If you combine the previous methods, the effect will be better. Every time you brush your teeth, if you don't feel at ease, you can look at the mirror to see if it is clean. Only when you take it seriously can you brush your teeth.

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