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苏珊·桑塔格:为什么现在的作家越来越没有良知了?

时间:2019-07-25

1963年,两年一度的耶路撒冷国际书展向作家颁发了第一个文学奖。本文作者是苏珊桑塔格,他的作品探索了社会中的个人自由。随后的获奖者包括Borges,Simone Beauvoir,Graham Green和Milan Kundera。本文是Susan Sontag于2001年5月9日在耶路撒冷的一次演讲。她在演讲中解释了作家应该拥有的“语言良知”。

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▲Susan Sontag(英文名:Susan Sontag,1933年1月16日 - 2004年12月28日),美国作家,艺术评论家。 1933年生于美国纽约,毕业于芝加哥大学。主要工作是《反对阐释》《激进意志的风格》《论摄影》,依此类推。

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[美]苏珊桑塔格鲲文鲲鲲丨译丨

隧道。言语可以膨胀和萎缩。它可以闻到难闻和烟雾。它经常提醒我们其他空间,其他更尴尬的空间或空间,我们认为我们曾经在这里。在这些空间中,我们已经失去了艺术和智慧的栖息地。最后,许多精神追求将不会被珍惜,并将被抛弃,孤立和拂去。

例如,“和平”这个词对我们意味着什么?我们冷静下来是一种冲突吗?还意味着遗忘?这是否意味着原谅?或者只是在深仇大恨,一种疲惫和一种卸载之后的一种疲惫?

在我看来,“和平”意味着大多数人的胜利。胜利属于他们。 “和平”对他们来说是一场胜利,对另一方来说,这意味着挫败感。

When peace becomes a popular expectation, if this concept implies an unacceptable loss of legal rights, then the seemingly most natural way is to resort to less than a comprehensive means of war. In this way, calling for peace makes people feel that if it is not a deceptive act, it must be a hasty move. Peace has become a space where people no longer know how to inhabit. Peace must be rebuilt and re-expanded.

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What does the “honor” we mean?

As a rigorous standard of personal behavior, honor seems to belong to a certain period of time. But the practice of granting honors in order to tout oneself or others has increased.

Granting an honor is a certain belief that everyone has a common belief. At this moment, accepting an honor means believing that you are well deserved. (In all civilized speeches, most of the winners would say that they were guilty of it.) The honour of refusing to grant seems to be rude and rude, and too pretentious.

Through the selection of winners of previous awards, one award accumulates the honor of and the ability to award honors.

Through this standard, we discuss the controversial “Jerusalem Award”, which has been awarded to some of the most outstanding writers in the second half of the twentieth century in a relatively short history. According to the obvious criteria, although this is a literary award, it is not named the "Jerusalem Literature Award" but the "Jerusalem Award for the Individual Freedom in Society."

Are all the writers who have won this honor really defend the personal freedom in society? They Now I have to say "we" have anything in common?

I don't think so.

xxThey represent political insights from a wide range of regions. Some of them hardly touch the "big words": freedom, personal, social.

But what the writer says does not matter, the most important thing is what the writer is.

Writers I am referring to the members of the literary circle. Symbolizes the unremitting persistence and urgency of personal philosophy.

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I like to use "individuals" as an adjective rather than a noun.

In our time, the advocacy of "individuals" seems to make me deeply suspicious, because "individualism" itself has become synonymous with selfishness. Capitalist society has some established interests in promoting "individualism" to drive. Individualism is nothing more than the infinite expansion of self. It is nothing but free shopping, free access, free exhaustion, free consumption, and free throwing of old things.

In self-cultivation, I don't believe in the intrinsic value. I don't think there is a standard of altruism. There is no culture (standard "cultural" in the standard sense) without the standard of the other. I do believe that there is a culture in the understanding of what human life is. If literature is fascinating as a project, first as a reader, then as a writer, then literature only deepens my self-interest, the field of others, the dreams of others, the remarks of others and the sympathy of the region of concern to others. As a writer, a literary creator, I am both a narrator and a meditator. The idea spurs me to move forward. But the novel is not written by ideas, but by form. The form of language. The form of expression. With the form I have a storyline in my mind. (As Nabokov said: “The pattern of things comes before the things themselves.”) There are Undoubtedly, it is self-evident The novel comes from the writer's perception of what literature is or what it should be.

xx每一位作家的作品,每一部文学作品都是对文学本身的描述。文学的辩护已经成为每个作家的主题。但正如奥斯卡王尔德所认为的那样,“艺术中真相本身的反面也是如此。”通过使用王尔德的话,我可以说:“文学中真理本身的反面也是如此。”

因此,从描述性和规范性,文学是一种自我意识,一种怀疑,一种道德顾忌和过度关注。从描述性和规范性的角度来看,文学也是一首歌,一种自然,一种庆祝和狂喜。

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与其他概念不同,例如爱的概念,除了回应他人的想法外,文学的概念几乎从未出现过。这是一些互动的想法。

我想大多数人都这么说,所以我会得出这个结论。

因此,我想为更大的热情或不同的实践创造空间。想法提供传递我想为不同的感觉或练习提供传球。

当你这样说时,我会朝着相反的方向去做,不仅仅是因为有时候作家才是专业的竞争对手。不仅要恢复不可避免的不平衡,要避免任何一种制度实践到一边和文学系统也因为文学是一种实践,植根于内在的矛盾欲望。

我认为任何文学描述都是不真实的。换句话说,它有偏见;每种描述都只会引发争议。如果你真的想谈论文学,你必须谈论一个悖论。

因此:每一部与文学名义名称相称的文学作品都呈现出独特的概念和独特的声音,但作为文学作品的集合,它呈现出多样性,多样性和混合性的概念。

我们每一个洞察力都将文学作为一种社会契约,文学作为一种对个人精神的强烈追求;民族文学,世界文学,或者可以成为一种精神跛足的方式,一种虚荣的方式或一种自尊的方式。

文献是一个系统一个多元化的系统系统中有指导方针,野心和忠诚度。文学伦理功能的一部分是关于多样性价值的课程。

当然,文学必须在一定范围内运作。 (就像所有的人类活动一样。唯一没有边界的活动就是死亡。)问题在于,在所有有动力的创造力和才能中,大多数人想要描绘的界限将扼杀文学自由的极限。

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我们生活在一种承认集体贪婪的文化中,在世界上广阔而宏伟的语言多样性中,有一种语言我用来写和写的语言现在是主流语言。在全球范围内,英语已经出现在来自世界各地的大量人群中。它的作用就像中东的欧洲拉丁语。

但正如我们生活在日益全球化的跨国文化中一样,我们也深深地沉浸在真实或新的集团组织日益分化的需求中。

世界文学中的文学群体和旧人文主义思想在各地都受到批评。这些想法对某些人来说是天真的,这些想法也受到欧洲伟大概念中普遍哲学的污染。这称为欧洲集中制。

The concept of "freedom" and "rights" has suffered an impressive derogatory in recent years. In many groups, organizational rights are much more important than individual rights.

With this in mind, there is no doubt that what literary creators can do is to increase the credibility of free speech and individual rights. Even literary creators dedicate their work to the group or organization to which they belong, and their achievements as writers are subject to this goal.

To give a winning writer a valuable or respectable quality, we all call it the unique voice of the writer.

But this uniqueness is the result of a silent cultivation by the individual. It is the result of a long training in reflection and loneliness, so it will be tested by the role of the writer's mission.

I will not question the writer's participation in public affairs and the power to pursue common causes and practices with like-minded people.

My point is not to take these activities out of the hidden, quirky inner world of writers who make up literature. And other activities that are almost full of life are beyond reproach.

However, due to the necessity of conscience and interest, it is the same thing to take the initiative to participate in public debates and public actions. It is another matter to take the rules out of context and make speech.

Not to say: where to do things; but: for what, and to oppose what.

But a writer does not become a machine for making speech. When a black poet in China was blamed by other African Americans for not ridiculing racism, he said: "The writer is not a jukebox."

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xx作者的第一个任务不是表达意见,而是揭示真相.并拒绝成为谎言和谣言的帮凶。文学是一个微妙而矛盾的地方,而不是一个简单的声音。作家的工作是让人们不那么相信那些精神掠夺者。作者的工作是让我们看到世界的真相,充满不同的需求,不同的组成部分和不同的经历。

作者的工作是描绘真相:肮脏的现实和现实的狂喜。文学供给的智慧(文学的许多成就)有助于我们理解正在发生的事情,并且知道其他事物将永远存在。

我被“其他事物”迷住了。

我很珍惜那些珍惜我珍惜的力量和价值的冲突。例如,当说实话不会导致正义。例如,当推广正义的时可能要控制一些好的事实。

许多二十世纪最着名的作家,在他们的舆论活动中,成为压制真相的共犯,以促进他们理解的正义事业(其中许多确实是公正的)。

我的观点是,如果我必须从真相和正义中选择一个当然,我不希望这个选择我会选择真相。

当然,我相信将会伸张正义。但这是作家的做法吗?

有三种不同的东西:演讲,我现在在说;写作,让我获得这个无与伦比的奖项,无论我是否配得上这个名字;并且是一个人,是一个团结他人并且有动力的人。

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正如罗兰巴特曾经说过的那样:“.这些不是他们自己的,文字不是他们自己的。”

当然我观点,政治观点,这些观点的形成也是基于阅读,讨论与思索,而不是来自第一手的经验。让我和大家分享一下我自己的两个观点区区拙见,在公共舆论中我对某些事件都直接发表过这些观点。

我相信,集体责任感这一信念,被当作集体惩戒的逻辑依据,无论在军事上还是在伦理上都是站不住脚的。我是指滥用大批火力屠戮平民,摧毁他们的家园与铲平他们的果园和树林,剥夺了他们的生存的权利,以及他们的工作,上学,医疗服务,自由进入邻近市镇与市区的权利.全都是为了惩戒敌方的军事活动,这些军事活动也许发生百姓周遭,甚至也许一点也不沾边。

我同样相信,除非停止以色列人进入巴勒斯坦领地,紧接着尽早而不是推迟解散这些移民地以及撤去保卫移民地的军队,否则不可能会和平。

我敢担保,我的这两个观点已经给在座的许多人分享过了。我怀疑引用一个美国老话我是在给牧师布道。(转译,意为“多此一举”。)

但我是以作家的身份表达这些观点的吗?或者对于这些众所周知的观点,我不是以平凡人的想法去表达,而是利用作家的身份来增加说话的分量?一个作家施加的影响纯粹是附加之物。而如今,这已经成为了名人文化的一个方面了。

在公共舆论中个人对于某一事件的观点若不是来自大量的第一手资料,总不免些粗糙。对于我浑然不知的东西,或者仓促得知的东西,如果我妄下结论的话,那只是在贩卖观点罢了。

XXBack to the beginning, I regard this award as an honor. The honor of literature. A project that expresses your own personal voice. Serious writers and literary creators should not only convey views that are different from the hegemonic discourse of the mass media. They should also oppose the collective embarrassment of news broadcasts and talk shows.

The problem with the point of view is that people are entangled in these views. Whenever you work as a writer, they always see more.

No matter what you see, there is always more and more. No matter what happens, other things will always come.

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If literature itself, this career that has developed for nearly a thousand years (in our knowledge), symbolizes a kind of wisdom. I think it is true, this is also the fundamental of literature. So, this is also because literature has written The various natures of our common destiny with humanity. Among the various values we cherish, literature reminds us of conflicts that will be insurmountable. (This is what is called "tragedy.") It also reminds us of "returning" and "other things."

The wisdom of literature and the concept of expression are inconsistent. Henry James said: "I don't have any final remarks about anything." Putting out ideas, even correct ideas Whenever asked, it will make the novelist and poet's thought-provoking and perceptual complexity superb. The rumors become cheap.

Pieces.

Let others, let celebrities politicians condescend, let them lie. If a writer and a public voice can represent a better aspect, then writers will use expressions and judgments as a difficult responsibility.

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xx从观点来看还有另一个问题。这种观点是自我停滞的中介。作家应该做的是让我们自由,让我们动摇。打开通往同情和新兴趣的道路。提醒我们,也许每个人,也许只是,都在追求让自己变得更加不同和更加完美。提醒我们,我们可以做出改变。

正如红衣主教纽曼所说:“这在天堂是另一回事,但这里的生活即将改变,完美也在不断变化。”

“完美”对我意味着什么?我不想解释,但我只想说完美让我发笑。我必须补充一点。这不是一种嘲笑,而是一种欢乐的话语。

我很荣幸获得“耶路撒冷文学奖”。我接受这个奖项,奖励给致力于文学事业的人。我接受这个奖项,并向以色列的读者和耶路撒冷的作家致敬。他们创造的文学充满了个人独特的声音和各种各样的真理。我以受伤和恐惧的人民的和平与和解的名义接受这一奖项。害怕必要性。必要的妥协和新模式。取消规章制度。保持对话是必要的。我接受这个奖项这个由国际书展赞助的国际奖项毕竟,这是我对国际文学界的尊重。

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